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Sycophaga Westwood

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Chalcidoidea; Family: Agaonidae; Subfamily: Sycophaginae)

Sycophaga Westwood 1840. Type species Sycophaga crassipes Westwood 1840.

Apocryptophagus Ashmead 1904. Type species: Chalcis explorator Ashmead 1904. Synonymy by Cruaud et al. 2011b.

Dynatogmus Mayr 1906. Junior subjective synonym of Apocryptophagus. Synonymy by Boucek 1991.

Parakoebelea Joseph 1957

 

Sycophaga afflicta Grandi,1916

 

Sycophaga agraensis (Joseph, 1953)

 

Sycophaga brevitarsus (Grandi, 1916)

 

Sycophaga callani Grandi,1955

 

Sycophaga concisiventris (Girault, 1915)

 

Sycophaga cyclostigma Waterston,1916

 

Sycophaga depressa Risbec,1956

 

Sycophaga explorator (Coquerel, 1855)

  Sycophaga flavus (Girault, 1927)
  Sycophaga fuscus (Girault, 1913)
 

Sycophaga gigantea Grandi,1916

  Sycophaga gigas (Mayr, 1906)
 

Sycophaga gracilis (Wiebes,1967)

 

Sycophaga insularis Grandi,1916

  Sycophaga robustus (Mayr, 1906)
 

Sycophaga silvestrii Grandi,1916

  Sycophaga stratheni (Joseph, 1957)

Sycophaga sycomori (Linnaeus,1758)

 

Sycophaga tenebrosa Grandi,1917

  Sycophaga testacea (Mayr, 1885)
 

Sycophaga thalakvadiensis (Joseph, 1957)

 

Sycophaga valentinae Grandi,1952

 

Sycophaga testacea (Motschulsky,1863)

 

Sycophaga testaceipes (Cameron,1911)

 

Sycophaga vicina Mayr,1906

 

Sycophaga viduata Grandi,1916

Distribution

Afrotropical region: Cameroon, Cape Verde Islands, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Israel, Kenya, Madagascar, Namibia, Réunion, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Zimbabwe.

Indo-Australasian region: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Papa New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan.

Biology

Associated with Ficus (Moraceae), Subgenus Sycomorus, Section Sycomorus. Entering the fig through the ostiole for oviposition at B-phase of fig development.

References

Ashmead, W.H. 1904. Classification of the chalcid flies of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, with descriptions of new species in the Carnegie Museum, collected in South America by Herbert H. Smith. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum 1(4): i-xi, 225-551,39 pls.

Cruaud, A., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Genson, G., Couloux, A., Yan-Qiong, P., Da Rong, Y., Ubaidillah, R.,  Pereira, R.A.S., Kjellberg, F., Van Noort, S., Kerdelhué, C. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2011a. Out of Australia and back again: the world-wide historical biogeography of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Sycophaginae). Journal of Biogeography 38: 209-225.

Cruaud, A., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Genson, G., Kjellberg, F., Kobmoo, N., Van Noort, S., Da-Rong, Y., Yan-Qiong, P., Ubaidillah, R., Hanson, P.E., Santos-Mattos, O., Farache, F.H.A., Pereira, R.A.S., Kerdelué, C. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2011b. Phylogeny and evolution of life-history strategies in Sycophaginae non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).

Kerdelhué, C. & J.Y. Rasplus 1996. Non-pollinating Afrotropical fig wasps affect the fig-pollinator mutualism in Ficus within the subgenus Sycomorus. Oikos 75: 3-14.

Kerdelhué C., J.P. Rossi & J.Y. Rasplus, 2000. Comparative community ecology studies on Old World figs and fig wasps. Ecology 81: 2832–2849.

Westwood, J.O. 1840. On caprification as practised upon the Figs in the south of Europe and the Levant, with descriptions of the insects employed for that purpose; and observations upon the Agaon paradoxum Dalman. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. II:214-224.

Credits

Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa).

Next genus: Megastigmus (Torymidae)

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)

 

Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2018. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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