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Sycophaginae Walker

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Chalcidoidea; Family: Agaonidae)

Sycophaginae Walker, 1975

ClassificationIdentification keys

Anidarnes Bouček, 1993

Conidarnes Farache & Rasplus, 2015

Eukoebelea Ashmead, 1904

Idarnes Walker, 1843

Pseudidarnes Girault, 1927

Sycidiphaga Liu, Rasplus & Huang, 2017

Sycophaga Westwood, 1840




Gall formers developing in fig ovules.


Bouček Z., 1988. Australian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) : a biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International, Wallingford, 1-832 pp.

Cruaud, A., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Genson, G., Couloux, A., Yan-Qiong, P., Da Rong, Y., Ubaidillah, R.,  Pereira, R.A.S., Kjellberg, F., Van Noort, S., Kerdelhué, C. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2011. Out of Australia and back again: the world-wide historical biogeography of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Sycophaginae). Journal of Biogeography 38: 209-225.

Cruaud, A., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Genson, G., Kjellberg, F., Kobmoo, N., Van Noort, S., Da-Rong, Y., Yan-Qiong, P., Ubaidillah, R., Hanson, P.E., Santos-Mattos, O., Farache, F.H.A., Pereira, R.A.S., Kerdelué, C. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2011. Phylogeny and evolution of life-history strategies in Sycophaginae non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 178. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-178.

Farache FHA, Cruaud A, Genson G, Pereira RAS, & Rasplus J-Y. 2013. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogeny of the fig wasp genus Anidarnes Bouček, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Sycophaginae). Systematic Entomology 38: 14–34. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00644.x

Farache, F.H.A. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2014. Revision of the Australasian genus Pseudidarnes Girault, 1927 (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Sycophaginae). Zookeys 404: 31-70. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.404.7204

Farache, F.H.A. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2015. Conidarnes, a new Oriental genus of Sycophaginae (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae) associated with Ficus section Conosycea (Moraceae). ZooKeys 539: 119–145. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.539.6529.

Farache FHA, Cruaud A, Genson G, Rasplus J, & Pereira RAS. 2017. Taxonomic revision and molecular phylogenetics of the Idarnes incertus species-group (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae, Sycophaginae). PeerJ 5:e2842 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2842

Girault, A.A. 1927. Notes on and descriptions of chalcid wasps (Chalcididae) in the South Australian Museum. Records of the South Australian Museum 3:309-338.

Liu Y, Rasplus JY, van Noort S, Li Z, Huang D. 2017. Sycidiphaga, a new genus of Sycophaginae Walker, 1975 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) associated with Ficus subgenus Sycidium in southern China. Zootaxa 4306: 91-107. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4306.1.5

Mayr, G. 1906. Neue Feigen-Insekten. Wiener Entomologische Zeitung 25: 153-187.

Walker, F. 1875. Descriptions of new genera and species of parasites, belonging to the families Proctotrupidae and Chalcididae, which attack insects destructive to the fig in India. Entomologist 8: 15-18.


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa) or © Fernando Farache (Centre de Biologie pour la Gestion des Populations, Montpellier, France).

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2022. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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