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Key to species of Seres

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Chalcidoidea; Family: Pteromalidae; Subfamily Sycoecinae)

ClassificationIndex to Keys

FEMALES

1. Propodeal spiracles medially situated (a); propodeal plicae (sometimes weak) extend from the spiracles to the posterior propodeal margin (a)...2

- Propodeal spiracles anteriorly situated (a); propodeal plicae absent (a)...6

2. Fore tibial armature consists of a plate of many teeth fused to the dorso-axial face of the tibia (a); mandible with a single ventral ridge (b), ex F. bubu...Seres wardi van Noort

- Fore tibial armature consists of a dorso-apical comb of teeth (a) that may have an additional two combs above it (b); mandible with two or three ventral teeth (c)...3

3. Epistomal margin with a medial tooth (a); 3 anelli, 4 funicle segments (b); proximal maxillary palp segment shorter than the medial segment (c), ex F. artocarpoides...Seres longicalcar van Noort

- Epistomal margin subquadrate (a); 2 anelli, 4 funicle segments (b); proximal maxillary palp segment longer than the medial segment (c)...4

4. Epistomal margin protrudes anteriorly no further than the paraclypeal margins (a), ex F. ovata (Zambia), F. polita polita, F. sansibarica sansibarica, F. sansibarica macrosperma...Seres solweziensis van Noort

- Epistomal margin protrudes anteriorly further than the paraclypeal margins (a)...5

5. Head more than twice as long as wide and more than 4.5X wider than the epistomal margin (a), ex F. ovata (West Africa)...Seres armipes armipes Waterston

- Head less than twice as long as wide and less than 4.1X wider than the epistomal margin (a), ex F. ovata (East Africa)...Seres armipes breviceps Wiebes

6. Mandible with two apical teeth and a single large ventral tooth (a); head always elongate and subovate, with a broadly bifurcate epistomal margin (b). MPS on antennae numerous and in close apposition (c)...24

- Mandible with two apical teeth and two or more ventral teeth (a); head may be square or elongate; epistomal margin otherwise; MPS less numerous and more widely spaced (c)...7

7. Mandible with two to four ventral teeth apically situated (a & b); mandible narrow and elongate, projecting forwards and downwards away from the epistomal margin; epistomal margin broadly concave, often with a medial convexity (c)...15

- Mandible with a row of at least 9 teeth on ventral edge (a), or a ventral plate of teeth (b); mandible broader, in close apposition with the epistomal margin (c)...8

8. Four well-spaced teeth anterior to a ventral row of 13-20 teeth (a)...9

- Mandible otherwise (figs a, b & c)...10

9. Epistomal margin distinctly bilobed, projecting further than paraclypeal margins (a); mandible with 18-20 ventral teeth (b); tibial armature a comb of 7-8 teeth, with 1-2 teeth dorsal to the comb (figc), ex Ficus spec. K....Seres jinjaensis (van Noort)

- Epistomal margin with slight lateral projections, not projecting further than the paraclypeal margins (a); mandible with 13-15 ventral teeth (b); tibial armature a comb of 5-6 teeth, with a single tooth dorsal to the comb (c), ex F. "natalensis"...Seres geminus (van Noort)

10. Mandible with at least two rows of ventral teeth. If only two rows are present the anterior row is uneven (a), usually many rows forming a plate of teeth (b &c)...11

- Mandible with a single row of ventral teeth (a). A second row of teeth may be present, but it is then inconspicuous and in a straight line (b)...19

11. Head square; epistomal margin weakly produced (a); two rows of ventral teeth on the mandible ([b), ex F. craterostoma...Seres insolitus (van Noort)

- Head elongate, more than 1.25X longer than wide (a); epistomal margin strongly produced; more than two rows of ventral teeth on the mandible (b)...12

12. Toruli situated completely between the eyes (a & b); ventral tentorial pits situated in the posterior end of a medial groove (c)...13

- Toruli situated on an imaginary line joining the anterior margins of the eyes (a & b); no medial groove present on the underside of the head (c)...14

13. Head 1.34X longer than wide, medial concavity of the epistomal margin as deep as broad (a); three to four uneven rows of ventral teeth on the mandible, posterior row with ca. 26 teeth (b), ex F. natalensis natalensis...Seres medius (van Noort)

- Head 1.55X longer than wide, medial concavity of the epistomal margin deeper than broad (a); more than three rows of ventral mandibular teeth forming an extensive plate of teeth, posterior row with ca. 44 teeth (b), ex F. "natalensis", F. "thonningii" and F. "dekekena"...Seres ugandensis (van Noort)

14. Eye length 1.5X cheek length; epistomal margin with a broad v-shaped medial indentation (a); hypostoma present (b), ex F. trichopoda...Seres hippopotomus (van Noort)

- Eye length twice cheek length; epistomal margin with a narrow v-shaped medial indentation, flanked by a step on each side (a); hypostoma absent (b), ex F. platyphylla...Seres barbatus (Grandi)

15. Ovipositor valves more than half as long as the gaster (a), ex F. bussei ...Seres zambesiacus (van Noort)

- Ovipositor valves a third or less than a third of metasoma length...16

16. Epistomal margin smooth and deeply concave (a); two ventral teeth on mandible (b), ex F. glumosa...Seres warei (van Noort)

- Epistomal margin with a medial convexity and only slightly concave (a); three ventral teeth on mandible (b & c)...17

17. Four ventral teeth on mandible (a), ex F. craterostoma...Seres quatuordentatus (van Noort)

- Three ventral teeth on mandible (a & b)...18

18. Four teeth on the dorso-apical margin of the fore tibia (a); paraclypeal margin/cheek junction rounded (b), ex F. abutilifolia...Seres rotundus (van Noort)

- Three teeth on the dorso-apical margin of the fore tibia (a); paraclypeal margin/cheek junction quadrate (b), ex F. burtt-davyi, F. burkei, F. l. lingua, F. stuhlmannii, F. craterostoma and F. natalensis leprieurii...Seres liodontus (Wiebes)

19. Malar sulcus absent (fig a); toruli either situated completely below the eyes or in line with the anterior margin of the eyes (fig b), if in line then epistomal margin with a deep medial incision (c)...20

- Malar sulcus distinct for complete cheek length (fig a); toruli situated completely between the eyes (b), epistomal margin never with a medial incision (c)...22

20. Head square (a), ex F. burkei...Seres barbarus (van Noort)

- Head elongate, at least 1.3X longer than wide (a & b)...21

21. Eye 1.5X longer than cheek; epistomal margin with shallow medial concavity (a), ex F. reflexa...Seres bouceki (Wiebes)

- Eye length equal to cheek length; epistomal margin convex (a), ex F. antandronarum bernardii...Seres comorensis (van Noort)

22. Comb of six teeth present on dorso-apical margin of tibia; epistomal margin with a deep medial incision (a), ex F. lutea...Seres silvestrii (Grandi)

- Plate of teeth present for most of dorso-antiaxial length of tibia (a, b); epistomal margin with only a shallow medial concavity (c)...23

23. Tibial plate subequal in length to first tarsal segment (a & b); antennal funicle segments longer than wide (c), ex F. saussureana...Seres cavus (van Noort)

- Tibial plate 2.5X as long as first tarsal segment (a); antennal funicle segments broader than long (b), ex F. chlamydocarpa...Seres comptoni (van Noort)

24. Eye length twice or more than twice as long as cheek...25

- Eye length less than 1.6X as long as cheek...26

25. Head 1.6X longer than wide, eye length 2.4X longer than cheek; epistomal margin broadly and shallowly concave (7), ex F. t. tremula...Seres clairae (van Noort)

- Head 1.4X longer than wide, eye length twice as long as cheek; epistomal margin concavity less broad and more medially situated (15), ex F. ottonifolia lucanda...Seres levis (van Noort)

26. Epistomal margin concavity deeper than the paraclypeal margins (1); head 1.5X longer than wide; eye length 1.37X longer than cheek, ex F. ottonifolia ulugarensis...Seres bifurcus (van Noort)

- Epistomal margin concavity shallower than the paraclypeal margins (5 & 16); head either 1.25X or 1.65X longer than wide; eye length 1.56X longer than cheek...27

27. Head 1.65X longer than wide; epistomal margin broad, width 0.4X head width (16); fore tibial armature on dorso-apical margin bidentate (11), ex F. artocarpoides...Seres rasplusi (van Noort)

- Head 1.25X longer than wide; epistomal margin narrow, width 0.26X head width (5); fore tibial armature on dorso-apical margin tridentate, ex Ficus s. macrosperma...Seres bakeri (van Noort)

MALES (The males of Seres longicalcar van Noort, Seres geminus, Seres insolitus, Seres bakeri, Seres bifurcus, Seres levis, and Seres quatuordentatus are unknown.

1. Propodeal spiracles medially situated with a plica (which may be indistinct) present from the spiracle to the posterior propodeal margin ...2

- Propodeal spiracles anteriorly situated, plica absent ...6

2. Head metallic green, rest of body testaceous (a); head narrows anteriorly (b) ...3

- Head and rest of body testaceous (a); head parallel sided, as broad anteriorly as posteriorly (b) ...4

3. Epistomal margin gently concave (a), ex F. bubu ...Seres wardi van Noort

- Epistomal margin with medial tooth (a), ex F. artocarpoides ...Seres longicalcar van Noort

4. Subapical mandibular tooth bicuspid (a), ex F. ovata ...Seres armipes armipes Waterston

- Subapical mandibular tooth unicuspid (a) ...5

5. Marginal vein short, 5.4X longer than wide (a), ex F. ovata (Zambia), F. polita polita, F. sansibarica sansibarica, F. sansibarica macrosperma ...Seres solweziensis van Noort

- Marginal vein more elongate, at least 7.0X longer than wide (a), ex F. ovata ...Seres armipes breviceps Wiebes

6. Mandibular apical teeth subequal, outer tooth less than twice the length of the inner (measured along the opposing inner edges); antennal flagellum shorter than the scape ...7

- Outer mandibular apical tooth more than twice the length of the inner; antennal flagellum longer than the scape ...9

7. Toruli situated in line with the anterior margin of the eyes; deep medial incision in the epistomal margin; inner mandibular tooth truncate (a), ex F. lutea ...Seres silvestrii (Grandi)

- Toruli situated completely below the eyes; epistomal margin with only a shallow medial concavity (a); inner mandibular tooth pointed (b) ...8

8. Head ca. square, L:W = 1.02; vertex rounded (a), ex F. saussureana ...Seres cavus (van Noort)

- Head broad, L:W = 0.90; vertex subquadrate (b)  ex F. chlamydocarpa ...Seres comptoni (van Noort)

9. Epistomal margin smoothly concave (a) ...10

- Epistomal margin less concave with a medial convexity, which may be indistinct (a) ...13

10. Vertex rounded (a), mesoscutum, scutellum and vertex dark brown, ex F. glumosa ...Seres warei (van Noort)

- Vertex straight (a), head and body testaceous ...11

11. Head elongate, 1.5X longer than wide (a), ex F. antandronarum bernardii ...Seres comorensis (van Noort)

- Head ca. square, L:W = 0.97-1.1 ...12

12. Head slightly longer than wide L:W = 1.1; small species, total length, with head in orthognathous position = 1.2 mm, ex F. reflexa ...Seres bouceki (van Noort)

- Head broad, L:W = 0.97 (a); larger species, total length, with head in orthognathous position = 1.84 mm, ex F. bussei ...Seres zambesiacus (van Noort)

13. Posterior two-thirds of head dark brown, almost black, ex F. platyphylla ...Seres barbatus (Grandi)

- Head testaceous ...14

14. Toruli in line with the anterior margin of the eyes (a) ...15

- Toruli situated completely between the eyes, even if only just (a) ...16

15. Head slightly elongate, L:W = 1.1; vertex straight (a), ex Ficus spec. ...Seres ugandensis (van Noort)

- Head square, L:W = 1.0; vertex more rounded (a), ex F. trichopoda ...Seres hippopotamus (van Noort)

16. Anterior edge of the toruli situated above the anterior margin of the eyes by at least the length of a torulus (a) ...17

- Anterior edge of the toruli situated on or just above the anterior margin of the eyes by less than the length of a torulus ...18

17. Mandible broad, width a third of total length; larger species - total length = 1.67 mm, ex F. abutilifolia ...Seres rotundus (van Noort)

- Mandible narrower, width a quarter of total length; smaller species - total length = 1.3mm, ex F. n. leprieurii, F. craterostoma, F. burtt-davyi, F. thonningii, F. stuhlmannii ...Seres liodontus (Wiebes)

18. Toruli very slightly separated (a), ex F. t. tremula ...Seres clairae (van Noort)

- Toruli touching along inner edges ...19

19. Toruli situated distinctly above the line joining the anterior margins of the eyes; epistomal margin slightly concave, ex F. burkei ...Seres barbarus (Grandi)

- Toruli situated with their anterior margins on the line joining the anterior margins of the eyes; epistomal margin straighter with a slight medial convexity...20

20. Cheek length 0.42X the eye length (a), ex Ficus spec. ...Seres jinjaensis (van Noort)

- Cheek length 0.30X the eye length (a), ex F. n. natalensis ...Seres medius (van Noort)

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)

 

Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2021. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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