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Sycophaga Westwood

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera;  Superfamily: Chalcidoidea; Family: Pteromalidae; Subfamily: Sycophaginae)

Sycophaga Westwood 1840. Type species Sycophaga crassipes Westwood 1840.

Apocryptophagus Ashmead 1904. Type species: Chalcis explorator Ashmead 1904. Synonymy by Cruaud et al, 2011b.

Dynatogmus Mayr 1906. Junior subjective synonym of Apocryptophagus. Synonymy by Boucek, 1991.

Parakoebelea Joseph, 1957.


Sycophaga afflicta Grandi,1916


Sycophaga agraensis (Joseph, 1953)


Sycophaga brevitarsus (Grandi, 1916)


Sycophaga callani Grandi,1955

  Sycophaga camerunensis (Mayr, 1906)

Sycophaga concisiventris (Girault, 1915)


Sycophaga cyclostigma Waterston,1916


Sycophaga depressa Risbec,1956


Sycophaga explorator (Coquerel, 1855)

  Sycophaga flavus (Girault, 1927)
  Sycophaga fuscus (Girault, 1913)

Sycophaga gigantea Grandi,1916

Sycophaga gigas (Mayr, 1906)

Sycophaga gracilis (Wiebes,1967)


Sycophaga insularis Grandi,1916

  Sycophaga robustus (Mayr, 1906)

Sycophaga silvestrii Grandi,1916

  Sycophaga stratheni (Joseph, 1957)

Sycophaga sycomori (Linnaeus,1758)

Sycophaga sycomori (Wiebes, 1967)

Sycophaga tenebrosa Grandi,1917

  Sycophaga testacea (Mayr, 1885)

Sycophaga testacea (Motschulsky,1863)


Sycophaga testaceipes (Cameron,1911)


Sycophaga thalakvadiensis (Joseph, 1957)


Sycophaga valentinae Grandi,1952


Sycophaga vicina Mayr,1906


Sycophaga viduata Grandi,1916

Sycophaga species 1 (ex Ficus sur)
Sycophaga species 2 (ex Ficus sur)


Afrotropical region: Cameroon, Cape Verde Islands, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, Israel, Kenya, Madagascar, Namibia, Réunion, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, UAE, Yemen, Zimbabwe.

Indo-Australasian region: Australia, China, India, Indonesia, Papa New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan.


Associated with Ficus (Moraceae), Subgenus Sycomorus, Section Sycomorus. Entering the fig through the ostiole for oviposition at B-phase of fig development.


Ashmead, W.H. 1904. Classification of the chalcid flies of the superfamily Chalcidoidea, with descriptions of new species in the Carnegie Museum, collected in South America by Herbert H. Smith. Memoirs of the Carnegie Museum 1(4): i-xi, 225-551,39 pls.

Cruaud, A., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Genson, G., Couloux, A., Yan-Qiong, P., Da Rong, Y., Ubaidillah, R.,  Pereira, R.A.S., Kjellberg, F., Van Noort, S., Kerdelhué, C. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2011a. Out of Australia and back again: the world-wide historical biogeography of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Sycophaginae). Journal of Biogeography 38: 209-225.

Cruaud, A., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Genson, G., Kjellberg, F., Kobmoo, N., Van Noort, S., Da-Rong, Y., Yan-Qiong, P., Ubaidillah, R., Hanson, P.E., Santos-Mattos, O., Farache, F.H.A., Pereira, R.A.S., Kerdelué, C. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2011b. Phylogeny and evolution of life-history strategies in Sycophaginae non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea).

Kerdelhué, C. & J.Y. Rasplus 1996. Non-pollinating Afrotropical fig wasps affect the fig-pollinator mutualism in Ficus within the subgenus Sycomorus. Oikos 75: 3-14.

Kerdelhué C., J.P. Rossi & J.Y. Rasplus, 2000. Comparative community ecology studies on Old World figs and fig wasps. Ecology 81: 2832–2849.

Westwood, J.O. 1840. On caprification as practised upon the Figs in the south of Europe and the Levant, with descriptions of the insects employed for that purpose; and observations upon the Agaon paradoxum Dalman. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. II:214-224.


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko Museums of South Africa).

Next genus: Megastigmus (Torymidae)

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2023. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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