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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Baez, M. 1998. Presence in the Canary Islands of the laurel de Indias pollinator wasp. Boletin de la Asociation Española de Entomologia. 22(1-2):225.

Báez, M. & Askew, R.R. 1999. New records of Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) from the Canary Islands. Boletin de la Asociation Española de Entomologia 23(1-2):65-82. 

Baijnath H, & Ramcharun S. 1983. Aspects of pollination and floral development in Ficus capensis Thunb. (Moraceae). Bothalia 14:883–88

Baijnath H, & Ramcharun S. 1988. Reproductive biology and chalcid symbiosis in Ficus burtt-davyi (Moraceae). Monogr. Syst. Bot. 25:227–35

Bailey, L.H. 1924. Manual of cultivated plants. Macmillan, New York.

Bailey, L.H. & Bailey. E.Z. 1976. Hortus Third. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York.

Baker, C.F. 1913. A study of caprification in Ficus nota. Philippine Journal of Science 8:63–83.

Baker, J. R. & Baker, Z. 1936. The Seasons In A Tropical Rain Forests. Part 3. The Fruit Bats. Journal Of The Linnean Society Of London, (Zoology) 40, 123-141.

Balakrishnan Nair, P., Joseph, M. & Abdurahiman, U.C. 1981. New fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Ficus altissima. Proceedings of the Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen 84: 145-154.

Balakrishnan Nair, P.; Abdurahiman, U.C. & Joseph, M. 1982. Two new Torymidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) from Ficus hirta. Oriental Insects. 15(4):433-442.

Balakrishnan Nair, P. & Abdurahiman, U.C. 1984. Population dynamics of the fig wasp Kradibia gestroi (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea Agaonidae) from Ficus exasperata. Proceedings. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam. (C). 87(4):365-376.

Balasubramanian, P. & Bole, P. V. 1993. Seed Dispersal By Mammals At Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary, Tamil Nadu. Journal Of The Bombay Natural History Society 90, 33-44.

Balasubramanian, P. 1996. Interactions Between Fruit-Eating Birds And Bird-Dispersed Plants In The Tropical Dry Evergreen Forest Of Point Calimere, South India. Journal Of The Bombay Natural History Society 93, 428-441.

Balasubramanian, R., Narendra Prasad, S. & Kandavel, K. 1998. Role Of Birds And Bird-Dispersal In The Natural Regeneration Of Forest Plants In Tamil Nadu. Salim Ali Centre For Ornithology And Natural History, Coimbatore, India.

Baltazar, C.R. 1966. A catalogue of Philippine Hymenoptera (with a bibliography, 1758-1963). Pacific Insects Monograph. 8:1-488.

Banack, S. A. 1996. Flying Foxes, Genus Pteropus, In The Samoan Islands: Interaction With The Forest Communities. Ph.D. Thesis., University Of California, Usa.

Bancroft, G. T. & Bowman, R. 1994. Temporal Patterns In Diet Of Nestling White-Crowned Pigeons: Implications For Conservation Of Frugivorous Columbids. Auk 111, 844-852.

Bandeira, S.O., Hatton, J.C., Munisse, P. & Izidine, S. 1994. The ecology and conservation status of plant resources in Mozambique. In: B.J. Huntley (ed.), Botanical Diversity in Southern Africa. Strelitzia 1: 105- 11 5.

Barker, N.P. 1985. Evidence of a volatile attractant in Ficus ingens (Moraceae). Bothalia 15: 607-611.

Barnea, A., Yom-Tov, Y. & Friedman, J. 1991. Does Ingestion By Birds Affect Seed Germination? Functional Ecology 5, 394-402.

Barrett, M.F. 1945. Ficus altissima. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 72: 394-398.

Barrett, M.F. 1949. Ficus retusa L. BuIl. Torrey Bot. Club 76: 53-64.

Barth, F.G. 1985. Insects and flowers. The biology of a partnership. (English Edition).  ix+297pp. George Allen & Unwin, London, Sydney & Princetown, New Jersey.

Basset Y, Novotny V. 1999. Species richness of insect herbivore communities on Ficus in Papua New Guinea. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 67:477–499.

Basset, Y., V. Novotny and G. Weiblen. 1997. Ficus: a resource for arthropods in the tropics, with particular reference to New Guinea. In Forests and Insects: 18th Symposium of the Royal Entomological Society (ed E. Watt, N. E. Stork and M. Hunter), pp. 339-359. Academic Press, London.

Bean, W.J. 1977. Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles. 8th edn., 2: 745-750.

Beardsley, J.W. 1982. Note on Odontofroggatia gajimaru Ishii. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 24(1):6.

Beardsley JW. 1998. Chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) associated with fruit of Ficus microcarpa in Hawai’i. Proc. Hawaii. Entomol. Soc. 33:19–34

Beck NG, Lord EM. 1988. Breeding system in Ficus carica, the common fig. II. Pollination events. Am. J. Bot. 75:1913–1922.

Becker, P., Leighton, M. & Payne, J. B. 1985. Why Tropical Squirrels Carry Seeds Out Of Source Crowns. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 1, 183-186.

Beck-King, H., Von Helversen, O. & Beck-King, R. 1999. Home Range, Population Density, And Food Resources Of Agouti Paca (Rodentia: Agoutidae) In Costa Rica: A Study Using Alternative Methods. Biotropica 31, 675-685.

Beehler, B. 1983. Frugivory And Polygamy In Birds Of Paradise. Auk 100, 1-12.

Beehler, B. M. & Dumbacher, J. P. 1996. More Examples Of Fruiting Trees Visited Predominantly By Birds Of Paradise. Emu 96, 81-88.

Beehler, B. M. 1987. Ecology And Behavior Of The Buff-Tailed Sicklebill (Paradisaedae, Epimachus Albertisi. Auk 105, 48-55.

Beentjie. H. 1994. Kenya Trees, Shrubs and Lianas. National Museums of Kenya, Nairobi.

Beentje, H.J. & Mbago, F.M. 2007. A guide to the fig trees of Western Tanzania with special empahsis on Gombe and Mahale National Parks. Journal of East African Natural History 96: 1–26.

Bein, E., Habte, B., Jaber, A., Birnie. A. & Tengnas. B. 1996. Useful Trees and Shrubs in Eritrea. Regional Soil Conservation Unit/SIDA, Nairobi.

Bekele-Tesemma, A. 1993. Useful Trees and Shrubs of Ethiopia. Regional Soil Conservation Unite/SIDA, Nairobi.

Berg. C.C. 1977. Revisions of African Moraceae (excluding Dorstenia, Ficus, Musanga and Myrianthus). Bull. fard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 47: 267-407.

Berg, C.C. 1980. Three new African Ficus species and a comment on Ficus gnaphalocarpa (Moraceae). Adansonia ser. 2. 20, 3: 263-272.

Berg, C.C. 1982. The reinstatement of the genus Milicia Sim (Moraceae). Bull. fard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 52: 225-229.

Berg, C.C. 1986. The delimitation and subdivision of the genus Madura (Moraceae). Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. v. Wetensch. 89,3: 241-247.

Berg, C.C. 1986. The Ficus species (Moraceae) of Madagascar and the Comore Islands. Bulletin du Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle d’Histoire Naturelle. Paris (4), 8: 17-55.

Berg, C.C. 1988. New taxa and combinations in Ficus (Moraceae) in Africa. Kew Bull.43,1:77- 97.

Berg, C.C. 1988. The genera Trophis and Streblus (Moraceae) remodelled. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch. 91 : 345-362.

Berg, C.C. 1989. Systematics and phylogeny of the Urticales. In: P.R. Crane & S. Blackmore (eds), Evolution, Systematics, and Fossil History of the Hamemelidae 2. Systematics Assoc. Special Vol. 40B, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Berg, C.C. 1989. Classification and Distribution of Ficus. Experientia 45: 605-611.

Berg, C.C. 1990. Annotated check-list of the Ficus species of the African floristic region, with special reference and a key to the taxa of southern Africa. Kirkia, 13: 253-291.

Berg, C.C. 1990. Distribution of African taxa of Ficus (Moraccae). [Proc. 12th AETFAT]. Mitt. inst. Allg. Bot. Hamburg 23: 401-405.

Berg, C.C. 1990. Reproduction and evolution of Ficus (Moraceae): traits connected with the adequate rearing of pollinators. Mem. NY Bot. Gard. 55:169–185.

Berg, C.C. 1991. Moraceae. In: E. Launert & G.Y. Pope (eds) Flora Zambesiaca 9, 6. Natural History Museum, London.

Berg, C.C. 1998. Phytogeography, systematics and diversification of African Moraceae compared with those of other tropical areas. In: C.R. Huxley, J.M. Lock & D.E Cutler (eds), Chorology, Taxonomy and Ecology of the Floras of Africa and Madagascar. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Berg, C.C.  2002. Ficus baola, a new species of Ficus subgenus Urostigma section Malvanthera (Moraceae) from the Solomon Islands Blumea 47: 315-317.

Berg, C.C.  2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceaea 1: The main subdivision of Ficus: the subgenera. Blumea 48: 167-178.

Berg, C.C.  2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceaea 2: Ficus subgenus Pharmacosycea section Oreosycea. Blumea 48: 289-301.  

Berg, C.C.  2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceaea 3: Ficus subgenus Ficus. Blumea 48: 529-550.  

Berg, C.C.  2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceaea 4: Ficus subgenus Synoecia. Blumea 48: 551-571.  

Berg, C.C.  2003. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceaea 5: Ficus subgenus Sycidium. Blumea 48: 573-597.  

Berg, C.C.  2004. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceaea 6: Ficus subgenus Sycomorus. Blumea 49: 155-200.

Berg, C.C.  2004. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceaea 7: Ficus subgenus Urostigma. Blumea 49: 463-480.  

Berg, C.C. & Simonis, J.F. (1981) The Ficus flora of Venezuela:
five species complexes discussed and two new species
described. Ernestia, 6, 1–11.
Berg, C.C., Va
zquez A.M. & Kooy, F. (1984) Ficus species of
Brazilian Amazonian and the Guianas. Acta Amazonica, 14,
Berg, C.C. & Simonis, J.F. (1981) The Ficus flora of Venezuela:
five species complexes discussed and two new species
described. Ernestia, 6, 1–11.
Berg, C.C., Va
zquez A.M. & Kooy, F. (1984) Ficus species of
Brazilian Amazonian and the Guianas. Acta Amazonica, 14,

Berg, C.C. 2010. Flora of Ecuador, Volume 85, Part 27C: Moraceae (Ficus). Botanical Institute, Goteborg University. 148 pages. ISBN-13: 9789185529162.

Berg, C.C. & Carauta, J.P.P. 2002. New species of Ficus (Moraceaea) from Brazil. Brittonia 54: 236-250.  

Berg, C.C., Carauta, JPP, Machado AFP. 2013. Ficus goiana, a replacement name for a Brazilian species of fig (Moraceae). Phytotaxa 108 (1): 54–56.  http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.108.1.4

Berg, C.C.  & Corner, E.J.H. 2005. Moraceae - Ficus. Flora Malesiana Series I (Seed Plants) Volume 17/Part 2. National Herbarium of the Netherlands, Leiden.  

Berg, C.C. & Hijman, M.E.E. 1999. The genus Dorstenia (Moraceae). Ilicifolia 2: 1- 211.

Berg, C.C. & Hijman, M.E.E. 1989. Chapter 11. Ficus. Flora of Tropical East Africa (ed. R.M. Polhill). 43-86. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Berg, C.C., Hijman, M.E.E. & Weerdenburg, J.C.A. 1984. Moracées (incl. Cécropiacées). Flore du Gabon 26: 1276.

Berg, C.C., Hijman, M.E.E. & Weerdenburg, J.C.A. 1985. Moracées (incl. Cécropiacées). Flore du Cameroun 28: 1298.

Berg, C.C. & Simonis, J.F. 1981. The Ficus flora of Venezuela: five species complexes discussed and two new species described. Ernestia 6: 1–11.

Berg, C.C., Vázquez A.M. & Kooy, F. 1984. Ficus species of Brazilian Amazonian and the Guianas. Acta Amazonica 14: 159–194.

Berg, C.C. & Wiebes, J.T. 1992. African fig trees and fig wasps. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Amsterdam, 1-298 pp.

Berney, F. 1906. Field Notes On The Birds Of The Richmond District, North Queensland. Emu 6, 41-47.

Bhat, H. R. 1994. Observations On The Food And Feeding Behaviour Of Cynopterus Sphinx Vahl (Chiroptera, Pteropodidae) At Pune, India. Mammalia 58, 363-370.

Biegel, H.M. 1977. Check-list of Ornamental Plants used in Rhodesian Parks and Gardens. Rhodesian Agricultural Journal, Research report 3, Government Printer, Harare.

Billberg, G.J. 1820. Enumerati Insectorum in Museo Gust. Jon. Billberg.  138pp. Stockholm.

Bingham, C. T. 1897. The Great Indian Hornbill In The Wild State. Journal Of The Bombay Natural History Society 11, 308-310.

Binns. B. 1972. Dictionary of Plant Names in Malawi. University of Malawi, Zomba.

Binstead, G. 1977. Food Of The Western Bowerbird In The Chichester Range, W. A. Western Australian Naturalist 14, 77.

Birkinshaw, C. R. 1999. The Importance Of The Black Lemur (Eulemur Macaco) For Seed Dispersal In Lokobe Forest, Nosy Be. In New Directions In Lemur Studies (Ed. B. Rakotosamimanana, H. Rasamimanana, J. Ganzhorn And S. M. Goodman), Pp. 189-199. Kluwer Academic, New York, Usa.

Blanchard, E.E. 1944. Dos nuevas especies de agaonidos Argentinos. Acta Zoologica Lilloana. 2(2):301-305.

Bleher, B., Potgeiter, C. J., Johnson, D. N. & Bohning-Gaese, K. (In Review. Fruit Availability And Keystone Plant Resources For Frugivores In A Dry Forest In Kwazulu - Natal, South Africa. Journal Of Tropical Ecology

Blume. C.L. 1836. Rumphia, commentat'iones botanicae imprimis de plantis Indiae Orientalis, 2. Lugduni-Batavorum.

Boissier, E. (1846): Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novarum, ser. 1, 7: 96. Genève, Leipzig.

Bolnick, D. 1995. A guide to the common wild flowers of Zambia & neighbouring regions. Macmillan Education Ltd., London.

Borges, R. M. 1993. Figs, Malabar Giant Squirrels And Fruit Shortages Within Two Tropical Indian Forests. Biotropica 25, 183-190.  

Borges RM, Bessiére J-M, Hossaert-McKey M. 2008. The chemical ecology of seed dispersal in monoecious and dioecious figs. Funct. Ecol. 22:484–93

Bouček Z., 1970. Contribution to the knowldege of Italian Chalcidoidea based mainly on a study at the Institute of Entomology in Turin, with descriptions of some new European species (Hymenoptera). Memorie della Società Entomologica Italiana. 49:35-102. 

Bouček, Z. 1969. On some new or otherwise interesting Torymidae, Ormyridae, Eurytomidae and Pteromalidae (Hym.) mainly from the Mediterranean subregion. Bullettino de Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silverstri', Portici.27:27-54.


Bouček Z., 1978. The study of non-podagrionine Torymidae with enlarge hind femore, with a key to African genera (Hymenptera). Journal of Entomological Society of Southern Africa 41(1):91-134.

Bouček Z., 1988. Australian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) : a biosystematic revision of genera of fourteen families, with a reclassification of species. CAB International, Wallingford, 1-832 pp.  

Bouček, Z., 1990. Australian Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera): futher errors and omissions. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine.126:87-88.

Bouček, Z. 1991. The identity of Dynatogmus Mayr (Hym., Agaonidae, Sycophaginae). Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. 127:190.  

Bouček, Z., 1991. Four new genera of European Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera), with some taxonomic changes. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e Bachicoltura, Milano (2). 22(2):195-206.

Bouček, Z., 1993. The genera of Chalcidoid wasps from Ficus fruit in the New World. Journal of Natural History, 27: 173-217.  

Bouček, Z., 1933. New taxa of North American Pteromalidae and  Tetracampidae (Hymenoptera), with notes. Journal of Natural Histor. 27:1239-1313.

Bouček, Z.; Subba Rao, B.R. & Farooqi, S.I. 1979. A preliminary review of Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) of India and adjacent countries. Oriental Insects. 12(4):433-468.

Bouček Z, Watsham A & Wiebes JT. 1981. The fig wasp fauna of the receptacles of Ficus thonningii (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Tijdschrift Voor Entomologie 124(5): 149-233.

Bravo, A. & Harms, KE. 2017. The biogeography of sodium in Neotropical figs (Moraceae). Biotropica 49: 18–22. doi:10.1111/btp.12398

Bravo, S. P. & Zunino, G. E. 1998. Effects Of Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta Caraya) Seed Ingestion On Insect Larvae. American Journal Of Primatology 45, 411-415.

Bravo, S. P., Kowalewski, M. M. & Zunino, G. E. 1995. Dispersión Y Germinación De Semillas De Ficus Monckii Por Aloutta Carya. Boletin Primatologico Latinoamericano 5, 27-30.

Breitwisch, R. 1983. Frugivores At A Fruiting Ficus Vine In A Southern Cameroon Tropical Wet Forest. Biotropica 15, 125-128.

Brenan, J.P.M. & Greenway, P.J. 1949. Check-lists of the forest trees and shrubs of the British Empire. Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford.

Brockelman, W. Y. 1982. Observations Of Animals Feeding In A Strangler Fig, Ficus Drupacea, In Southeast Thailand. Natural History Bulletin Of The Siam Society 30, 33-44.

Bronstein JL. 1987. Maintenance of species-specificity in a neotropical figpollinator wasp mutualism. Oikos 48:39– 46.

Bronstein JL. 1988. Limits to fruit production in a monoecious fig: consequences of an obligate mutualism. Ecology 69:207– 214.

Bronstein JL. 1988. Mutualism, antagonism and the fig-pollinator interaction. Ecology 69:1298–302 20. 

Bronstein JL. 1988. Predators of fig wasps. Biotropica 20:215–219.

Bronstein J.L., 1989. A mutualism at the edge of its range. Experientia, 45: 622-636.

Bronstein JL. 1991. The nonpollinating wasp fauna of Ficus pertusa: exploitation of a mutualism? Oikos 61:175–186.

Bronstein JL. 1999. Natural history of Anidarnes bicolor (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae), a galler of the Florida strangling fig (Ficus aurea). Fla. Entomol. 82:454– 464.

Bronstein, J. L. & Hoffman, K. 1987. Spatial And Temporal Variation In Frugivory At A Neotropical Fig, Ficus Pertusa. Oikos 49, 261-268.

Bronstein, J.L. 1992. Seed predators as mutualists: ecology and evolution of the fig/pollinator interaction. Pp. 1-44 in Insect-Plant Interactions Vol IV, E. Bernays, ed. CRC Press, London.

Bronstein JL, Gouyon P, Gliddon C, Kjellberg F, & Michaloud G. 1990. The ecological consequences of flowering asynchrony in monoecious figs: a simulation study. Ecology 71:2145–2156.

Bronstein, J.L. & Hosaert-McKey, M. 1996. Variation in reproductive success within a subtropical fig/pollinator mutualism. Journal of Biogeography. 23(4):433-446.

Bronstein, J.L. & Hossaert-McKey, M. 1995. Hurricane Andrew and a Florida fig pollination mutualism: resilience of an obligate interaction. Biotropica. 27(3):373-381.

Bronstein JL, & McKey D. 1989. The fig/ pollinator mutualism: a model system for comparative biology. Experientia 45: 601–604.

Bronstein JL, & Patel A. 1992. Causes and consequences of within—tree phenological patterns in the Florida strangling fig, Ficus aurea (Moraceae). Am. J. Bot. 79:41–48.

Bronstein JL, & Patel A. 1992. Temperature- sensitive development: consequences for local persistence of two subtropical figwasp species. Am. Midl. Nat. 128:397– 403.

Bronstein, J.L., Vernet, D. & Hossaert-McKey, M. 1998. Do fig wasps interfere with each other during oviposition? Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 87(3):321-324.

Brooks DR & Ferraro AL. 2005. The historical biogeography of co-evolution: emerging infectious diseases are evolutionary accidents waiting to happen. Journal of Biogeography 32: 1291-1299.

Brosset, A. & Erard, C. 1986. Les Oiseaux Des Regions Forestieres Du Nord-Est Gabon. Volume I. Ecologie Et Comportement Des Especes. Revue D'ecologie (La Terre Et La Vie) Supplement 3.

Brues CT. 1910. The parasitic Hymenoptera of the Tertiary of Florissant, Colorado. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 54:1–125

Brummitt, R.K. 1992. Vascular Plant Families and Genera. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Burks, B.D. 1979. Torymidae (Agaoninae) and all other families of Chalcidoidea (excluding Encyrtidae). (In: Krombein, K.V.; Hurd, P.D. jr.; Smith, D.R.; Burks, B.D., Editors.) Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. 1:748-749, 768-889, 967-1043. Smithsonian Institute Press, Washington, D.C.  

Burks, B.D. 1958. A North America Colotrechnus (Zanonia) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Florida Entomologist. 41(1):13-16.


Burks, B.D. 1969. New Perilampidae (Hyemoptera: Chalcidoidea). Proceedings of Entomological Society of Washington. 71: 73-81.


Burks, B.D. 1969. Redefinitions of two genera of chalcidoids from figs, with new Florida species. Florida Entomologist 52(2):115-112.

Burrows, J. & Burrows, S. 2003. Figs of southern & south-central Africa. Umdaus Press, Hatfield. 379 pp.

Butcher, F.G. 1964. The Florida fig wasp, Secundeisenia mexicana (Ashm.), and some of its hymenopterous symbionts. Florida Entomologist. 47(4):235-238. 

Butler, W. H. 1971. Yellow Fig Bird In Western Australia. Western Australian Naturalist 12, 21.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2018. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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