HomeFigsFig waspsBiologyFig classificationWasp classificationWaspWebBiodiversity Explorer


Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Raja, S., Suleman, N., Quinnell, R. J. and Compton, S. G. 2014. Interactions between pollinator and non-pollinator fig wasps: correlations between their numbers can be misleading. Entomological Science. doi: 10.1111/ens.12100

Ramcharun, S.; Baijnath, H. & Greuning, J.V. van. 1990. Some aspects of the reproductive biology of the Ficus natalensis complex in southern Africa. Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Allgemeine Botanik Hamburg. 23a:451-455.

Raemaekers, J. 1984. Large Versus Small Gibbons: Relative Roles Of Bioenergetics And Competition In Their Ecological Segregation In Sympatry. In The Lesser Apes. Evolutionary And Behavioural Biology (Ed. H. Preuschoft, D. J. Chivers, W. Y. Brockelman And N. Creel), Pp. 209-218. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, Uk

Ramirez W.B. 1969. Fig wasps: mechanisms of pollen transfer. Science 163: 580–581.

Ramirez, W.B. 1970. Taxonomic and biological studies of Neotropical fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae). University of Kansas Science Bulletin. 49(1):1-44.

Ramirez, W.B. 1970. Host specificity of figwasps (Agaonidae). Evolution 24: 680– 691.

Ramirez, W.B. 1974. Coevolution of Ficus and Agaonidae. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 61:770–780.

Ramirez, W.B. 1978. Evolution of mechanisms to carry pollen in Agaonidae (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea). Tijdschr. Entomol. 121:279–293.

Ramirez, W.B. 1980. Evolution of the monoecious and dioecious habit in Ficus (Moraceae). Brenesia 18:207–215.

Ramirez, W.B.  1986. Oviposition behaviour of Critogaster and Idarnes (Sycophaginae, Torymidae: Chalcidoidea) longtailed parasites of the New World Pharmacosycea and Urostigma figs. Brenesia. No 25-26:323-325.

Ramirez, W.B. 1988. Parasitic relationships among chalcidoid fig-wasps and the syconia of Ficus (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Adv. Parasit. Hymenopt. Res. 1:345–350.

Ramírez, W.B. 1990. Aristotle and his pupil Theophrastus were good observers but did not have a photographic camera to record their observations. Brenesia. No 31:109-111.

Ramirez, W.B. 1991. Evolution of the mandibular appendage in fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 39:87–95.

Ramirez, W.B. 1994. Hybridization of Ficus religiosa with F. septica and F. aurea (Moraceae). Rev. Biol. Trop. 42:339–342.

Ramirez, W.B. 1997. Breathing adaptations of males in fig gall flowers (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae). Revista de Biologia Tropical. 44-45(3-1):277-282.

Ramirez, W.B. & Malavasi, J. 1997. Fig wasps: mechanisms of pollen transfer in Malvanthera and Pharmacosycea figs (Moraceae). Revista de Biologia Tropical. 45(4):1635-1640.

Ramirez, W.B. & Montero, J. S. 1989. Ficus microcarpa L., F. benjamina L. and other species introduced in the New World, their pollinators (Agaonidae) and other fig wasps. Revista de Biologia Tropical. 36(2B):441-446.

Ranger, G. 1950. Life Of The Crowned Hornbill. Ostrich 21, 2-13.

Rannala B & Michalakis Y. 2002. Population genetics and cospeciation: from process to pattern. In: Tangled Trees: Phylogeny, Cospeciation, and Coevolution. Ed. Page RDM. 350 pp. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

Rasplus J.Y. 1996. The one-to-one species-specificity of the Ficus-Agaoninae mutualism: how casual? In: van der Maesen L.J.G., X.M. van der Burgt & J.M. van Medenbach de Rooy (Editors), The Biodiversity of African plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers,  Wageningen, The Netherlands, pp. 639--649.

Rasplus J.Y., Harry, M., Perrin H., Chassagnard, M.T. & Lachaise D. 2003. Les Ficus (Moraceae) et l'entomofaune des figues (Hym. Agaonidae, Pteromalidae, Torymidae, Eurytomidae; Dipt. Drosophilidae; Col. Curculionidae) du mont Nimba en Guinée, in Lamotte, M & Roy, R. (eds), Le peuplement animal du mont Nimba (Guinée, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia). Mémoirs du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle 190: 107-182. Paris.

Rasplus J.Y., C. Kerdelhué, I. Le Clainche & G. Mondor, 1998. Molecular phylogeny of fig waps (Hymenoptera). Agaonidae are not monophyletic. Compte Rendu de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris, 321: 517-527.

Ratcliffe, F. N. 1932. Notes On The Fruit Bats (Pteropus Spp.) Of Australia. Journal Of Animal Ecology 1, 32-57.

Reddy, Y.N. & Rao, P.N. 1986. Schistonchus racemosa sp.n., a nematode parasite of wasp (Ceratosolen sp.) associated with the fig Ficus racemosa L. Indian Journal of Nematology. 16(1):135-137.

Remsen, J. V, Hyde, M. A. & Chapman, A. 1993. The Diets Of Neotropical Trogons, Motmots, Barbets And Toucans. Condor 95, 178-192.

Renoult J.P., Kjellberg F., Grout C., Santoni S., Khadari B. 2009. Cyto-nuclear discordance in the phylogeny of Ficus section Galoglychia and host shifts in plant-pollinator associations. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 248.

Reynolds, V. & Reynolds, F. 1965. Chimpanzees Of The Budongo Forest. In Primate Behaviour. Field Studies Of Monkeys And Apes (Ed. I. De Vore), Pp. 368-424. Holt, Reinhart And Winston, New York, Usa.

Ridley, H. N. 1930. The Dispersal Of Plants Throughout The World. L. Reeve & Co., Kent, Uk.

Riley, C.V.; Ashmead, W.H. & Howard, L.O. 1894. Report upon the parasitic Hymenoptera of the island of St. Vincent. Journal of the Linnean Society (Zoology). 25:56-254.

Risbec, J. 1951. 1. Les Chalcidoides de l'Afrique occidentale française. Mémoires de l'Institute Français d'Afrique Noire, Ifan-Dakar. 13:7-409.

Risbec, J. 1951. Chalcidoïdes d'A.O.F. Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire. 13:1110-1130.  

Risbec, J. 1953. Chalcidoïdes et proctotrupoïdes de l'Afrique occidentale français d'Afrique Noire.15:549-609.

Risbec, J. 1954. Chalcidoïdes et proctotrupoïdes de l'Afrique occidentale française (3e supplément). Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (A). 16:524-552.

Risbec, J. 1956. Torymidae et Agaonidae de Madagascar (Hym. Chalcidoidea). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 124:149-194.

Risbec, J. 1957. Chalcidoïdes et proctotrupoïdes de l'Afrique occidentale française. Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (A). 19:228-267. 

Risbec, J. 1957. Contribution à l'étude de la faune entomologique du Ruanda-Urundi (Mission P. Basilewsky 1953). CXXIII. Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae, Pteromalidae, Eurytomidae, Torymidae, Perilampidae, Encyrtidae et Eupelmidae. Annales du Musée Royal Congo Belge Tervuren (Zoologie). 58:148-231.

Rixford, G.P. 1912. Fructification of the fig by Blastophaga. Journal of Economic Entomology. 5, 349-355.

Roberts, J. T. & Heithaus, E. R. 1986. Ants Rearrange The Vertebrate-Generated Seed Shadow Of A Neotropical Fig Tree. Ecology 67, 1046-1051.

Rogers, M. E., Maisels, F., Williamson, E. A., Fernandez, M. & Tutin, C. E. G. 1990. Gorilla Diet In The Lope Reserve, Gabon: A Nutritional Analysis. Oecologia 84, 326-339.

Romo, M. C. 1996. Seasonal Variation In Fruit Consumption And Seed Dispersal By Canopy Bats (Artibeus Spp.) In A Lowland Forest In Peru. Vida Silvestre Neotropical 5, 110-119.

Rønsted,  N., G. D. Weiblen, J. M. Cook, N. Salamin, C. A. Machado, V. Savolainen. 2005. 60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B. 272, 2593-2599.

Rønsted,  N., Salvo, G., Savolainen, V., 2007. Biogeographical and phylogenetic origins of African fig species (Ficus section Galoglychia). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43, 190201.

Rønsted, N., G. D. Weiblen, V. Savolainen, J. M. Cook. 2008. Phylogeny, biogeography, and ecology of Ficus section Malvanthera (Moraceae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48: 12-22.

Rønsted, N., G. D. Weiblen, W. Clement, N. Zerega, V. Savolainen. 2008.
Reconstructing the phylogeny of figs (Ficus, Moraceae) to unravel the origin of fig-wasp mutualisms. Symbiosis 45: 45-56.

Rose, A. B. 1973. Food Of Some Australian Birds. Emu 73, 177-183.

Rundle HD & Nosil P. 2005. Ecological speciation. Ecology Letters 8: 336-352.

Russell, J. K. 1982. Timing Of Reproduction By Coatis (Nasua Narica) In Relation To Fluctuations In Food Resources. In The Ecology Of A Tropical Forest. Seasonal Rhythms And Long-Term Changes.(Ed. E. G. Leigh Jr, A. S. Rand And D. M. Windsor), Pp. 413-431. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., USA.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2018. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

Copyright 2004-2018 Iziko Museums of South Africa

website statistics