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Sycoryctina Weibes

(Life: Kingdom: Metazoa (animals); Phylum: Arthropoda; Class: Hexapoda; Order: Hymenoptera; Superfamily: Chalcidoidea; Family: Pteromalidae; Subfamily: Pteromalinae; Tribe: Otitesellini)

Sycoryctini Wiebes, 1966. Type species: Sycoryctes Wiebes, 1966.

Apocryptini Wiebes, 1966. Type genus: Apocrypta Wiebes, 1966.

Philotrypesini Wiebes, 1966. Type gernus: Philotrypesis Wiebes, 1966.

ClassificationIdentification Keys


Adiyodiella Priyadarsanan, 2000


Arachonia Joseph, 1957


Boučeka Koçak & Kemal, 2008


Dobunabaa Bouček, 1988


Parasycobia Abdurahiman & Joseph, 1967  

Philotrypesis Förster 1878


Philoverdance Priyadarsanan, 2000

  Sycorycteridea Abdurahiman & Joseph, 1967

Sycoryctes Mayr, 1885

Sycoscapter Saunders, 1883


Sycoscapteridea Ashmead, 1904

Watshamiella Wiebes, 1981




Parasitoids, kleptoparsitoids or inquilines of galling and parasitoid fig wasps associated with Ficus subgenera: Ficus, Sycidium, Sycomorus, Pharmacosycea and Urostigma. Non-pollinators that lay eggs through the fig wall.


Burks R, Mitroiu M-D, Fusu L, Heraty JM, Janšta P, Heydon S, Papilloud ND-S, Peters RS, Tselikh EV, Woolley JB, van Noort S, Baur H, Cruaud A, Darling C, Haas M, Hanson P, Krogmann L, Rasplus J-Y. 2022. From hell’s heart I stab at thee! A determined approach to rendering Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) monophyletic. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 94:13-88. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.94.94263

Cruaud A, Rasplus J-Y, Zhang J, Burks R, Delvare G, Fusu L, Gibson GAP, Gumovsky A, Hanson P, Huber JT, Janšta P, Mitroiu M-D, Noyes JS, van Noort S, Baker A, Böhmová J, Baur H, Blaimer BB, Brady1 SG, Bubeníková K, Chartois M, Copeland RS, Dale-Skey Papilloud N, Dal Molin A, Darling C, Dominguez C, Fisher N, Gates MW, Gebiola M, Guerrieri E, Haas M, Hansson C, Heydon S, Kresslein RL, Krogmann L, Moriarty Lemmon E, Mottern J, Murray E, Nidelet S, Nieves Aldrey JL, Perry R, Peters RS, Pinto JD, Polaszek A, Sauné L, Schmidt S, Torréns J, Triapitsyn S, Tselikh EV, Ubaidillah R, Yoder M, Lemmon A, Woolley JB, Heraty JM. In press. The Chalcidoidea bush of life–a massive radiation blurred by mutational saturation. Systematic Entomology https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.09.11.507458

Coquerel, C. 1855. Description de parasite anormaux d'un figuier de l'ile de Bourbon. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée (2). 7:365-371, 422-427.

Grandi, G. 1916. Gli Agaonini (Hymenoptera Chalcididae) raccolti nell'Africa occidentale dal Prof. F. Silvestri. Bollettino del Laboratorio di Zoologia Generale e Agraria della R. Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura, Portici. 10:121-286.

Joseph, K.J. 1957. Contribution to our knowledge of fig insects (Chalcidoidea: parasitic Hymenoptera) from India. VII. Descriptions of fifteen new and revision of some old species. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 125:97-133.

Kjellberg, F. and Lesne A. 2020. Ficus carica and its pollination. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02516888

Kjellberg, F. van Noort, S, Rasplus JY. In press. Fig wasp and pollination. In Sarkhosh, L. Ferguson, A.M. Yavari (Editors): The Fig: Botany, Production and Uses. CAB International.

McLeish, M.J., Beukman, G., van Noort, S., Wossler, T.C. 2012. Host-Plant Species Conservatism and Ecology of a Parasitoid Fig Wasp Genus (Chalcidoidea; Sycoryctinae; Arachonia). PLoS ONE 7(9): e44804. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0044804

Segar ST, Lopez-Vaamonde C, Rasplus J-Y, Cook JM. 2012. The global phylogeny of the subfamily Sycoryctinae (Pteromalidae): Parasites of an obligate mutualism. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 116-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2012.05.030 PubMed: 22683561.

Ulenberg, S.A. 1985. The phylogeny of the genus Apocrypta Coquerel in relation to its hosts Ceratosolen Mayr (Agaonidae) and Ficus L. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde, Tweed Reeks. 83:149-176.

Ulenberg, S.A. & Pelt, W. van. 1985. A revision of the species of Apocrypta Coquerel: a taxonomic study incorporating uni- and multivariate analyses. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Afdeeling Natuurkunde, Tweede Reeks. 83:41-148.

Wiebes, J.T. 1966. The structure of the ovipositing organs as a tribal characters in the Indo-Australian Sycophaginae Torymidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). Zoologische Mededeelingen, Leiden. 41:151-159.


Photographs © Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum).

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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