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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Cameron, P. 1888. Descriptions of a new genus and some new species of parasatic Hymenoptera. Proceedings of the Manchester Literacy and Philosophical Society. 26:117-137.

Cameron, P. 1906. Algunos Himenópteros. Informe An. Estac. Centr. Agron., Cuba. 1906:275-285.

Cameron, P. 1911. On the parasitic Hymenoptera collected by Mr. A.J.T. Janse, Transvaal. Annals of the Transvaal Museum. Pretoria. 2:173-217.

Campbell, B., Heraty, J., Rasplus, J. Y., Chan, K., Steffan-Campbell, J. & Babcock, C. 2000 Molecular systematics of the Chalcidoidea using 28S-rDNA. In The Hymenoptera: Evolution, Biodiversity and Biological Control (ed. A. D. Austin & M. Dowton), pp. 59-73. Canberra: CSIRO Publishing.

Cannon, C. E. 1984. The Diet Of Lorikeets Trichoglossus Spp. In The Queensland-New South Wales Border Region. Emu 84, 16-22.

Carauta, J.P.P. 2002. Ficus nevesiae Carauta (Moraceae) nova espécie e ameaçada de extinção. Albertoa 10,  65-67.

Carauta, J.P.P. & Diaz, B.E. 2002. Ficus gomelleira Kunth (Moraceae): descrição latina do sicônio e commentários sobre o autor. Albertoa 10, 67-68.

Carauta, J.P.P. & Diaz, B.E. 2002. Figueiras no Brazil. pp 212. RJ:Editora UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro.

Carauta, JPP, Pederneiras, LC, De Souza, PP, Machado, AFP, Vianna Filho, MDM & Romaniuc Neto, S. 2012. Ficus ernanii (Moraceae), nova espécie para a flora do Brasil. Albertoa. Série Urticineae (Urticales) (36): 277-284.

Cardona, W., Kattan, G. & de Ulloa, P.C. 2013. Non-pollinating Fig Wasps Decrease Pollinator and Seed Production in Ficus andicola (Moraceae). Biotropica, 45: 203–208. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2012.00901.x

Carr, G. W. 1993. Exotic Flora Of Victoria And Its Impact On Indigenous Biota. In Flora Of Victoria (Ed. D. B. Foreman And N. G. Walsh), pp. 256-294. Inkata Press, Melbourne, Australia.

Carvalho, C. T. 1960. Sobre Os Hàbitos Alimemtares De Phillostomeideos (Mammalia, Chiroptera. Revista De Biologia Tropical 9, 53-60.

Caterall, C. P. 1985. Winter Energy Deficits And The Importance Of Fruit Versus Insects In A Tropical Island Bird Population. Australian Journal Of Ecology 10, 265-279.

Chandler, L. G. 1915. Figs Eaten By Butcherbird. Emu 15, 51.

Chao, J., Koh, C., Fang, K., Chen, Y. & Yeh, W. 1993. Feeding On Plants By The Red-Bellied Tree Squirrel Callosciurus Erythraeus In Taipei Botanical Garden. Bulletin Of The Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, New Series 8, 39-50.

Chapman, C. A. 1989. Primate Seed Dispersal: The Fate Of Dispersed Seeds. Biotropica 21, 148-154.

Charles-Dominque, P., Atramentowicz, M., Charles-Dominique, M., Gerard, H., Hladik, A., Hladik, C. M. & Prevost, M. F. 1981. Les Mammiferes Frugivores Arboricoles Nocturnes D'une Foret Guyanaise: Inter-Relations Plantes-Animaux. Revue D'ecologie (La Terre Et La Vie) 35, 341-435.

Chen CH, Chou LY. 1997. The Blastophagini of Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae: Agaoninae). Journal of Taiwan Museum 50: 113–54

Chen CH, Chou LY. 1997. The Blastophagini of Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae: Agaoninae). Journal of Taiwan Museum 50(2):113-154. Text in English. Summary in Chinese.

Chen YR, Chuang WC, & Wu WJ. 1999. Chalcid wasps on Ficus microcarpa L. in Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Journal of Taiwan Museum 52:39–79.

Chimchome, V., Vidhidharm, A., Simchareon, S., Bumrungsri, S. & Poonswad, P. 1998. Comparative Study Of The Breeding Biology And Ecology Of Two Endangered Hornbills Species In Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand. In The Asian Hornbills: Ecology And Conservation (Ed. P. Poonswad), Pp. 111-136. Biodiversity Research And Training Program, National Center For Genetic Engineering And Biotechnology, Bangkok, Thailand.

Chivers, D. J. 1977. The Feeding Behaviour Of Siamang (Symphalangus Syndactylus. In Primate Ecology: Studies Of Feeding And Ranging Behaviour In Lemurs, Monkeys And Apes (Ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), Pp. 335-382. Academic Press, London, Uk.

Chou, L.S. & Yeh, H.M. 1995. The pollination ecology of Ficus aurantiaca var. parvifolia. Acta Zoologica Taiwanica 6(1):1-12.

Chou, L.Y. & Wong, C.Y. 1997. New records of three Philotrypesis species from Taiwan (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae: Sycoryctinae). Chinese Journal of Entomology. 17(3):182-183.

Chuang, S-A, & Lee, L-L. 1997. Food Habits Of Three Carnivore Species (Viverricula Indica, Herpestes Urva And Melogale Moschata) In Fushan Forest, Northern Taiwan. Journal Of Zoology 243, 71-79.

Church, R. J. 1997. Avian Frugivory In A Subtropical Rainforest: Eleven Years Of Observations In Lamington National Park. The Sunbird 27, 85-97.

Coates-Estrada, R. & Estrada, A. 1986. Fruiting And Frugivores At A Strangler Fig In The Tropical Rain Forest Of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 2, 349-357.

Collinson ME. 1989. The fossil history of the Moraceae, Urticaceae (including Cecropiaceae), and Cannabaceae. In Evolution, Systematics, and Fossil History of the Hamemelidae, ed. PR Crane, S Blackmore, pp. 319–39. Oxford: Clarendon.

Compton, S.G. 1987. Aganais speciosa and Danaus chrysippus (Lepidoptera) sabotage the latex defences of their host plants. Ecological Entomology 12: 115-118.

Compton, S.G. 1989. The fig wasp Odontofroggatia galili (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in the Greek isles. Entomologist's Gazette. 40:183-184.

Compton, S.G. 1989. Sabotage of latex defences by caterpillars feeding on fig trees. South African Journal of Science 85: 605-606.

Compton, S.G. 1990. A collapse of host specificity in some African fig wasps. South African Journal of Science, 86: 39-40.

Compton, S.G. 1992. New records of Ficus species and their pollinators on Grand Comore. Bothalia 22: 46-47.

Compton, S.G. 1993. One way to be a fig. African Entomology 1:151–158.

Compton, S.G. 1996. The biology of fig trees and their associated animals. J. Biogeogr. 23:405–607.

Compton, S.G. & Disney, R.H.L. 1991. New species of Megaselia (Diptera: Phoridae) whose larvae live in fig syconia (Urticales: Moraceae), and adults prey on fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae). J. Nat. Hist. 25:203–219.

Compton, S.G. & Hawkins, B.A.1992. Determinants of species richness in southern African fig wasp assemblages. Oecologia, 91: 68-74.

Compton, S.G. & McCormack, G. 1999. The Pacific Banyan in the Cook Islands: have its pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms been disrupted, and does it matter? Biodiversity Conservation  8: 1707-1715.

Compton, S.G. & McLaren, F.A.C. 1989. Respiratory adaptations in some male fig wasps. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C 92:57–71.

Compton, S.G. & Nefdt, R.J.C. 1988. Extralong ovipositors in chalcid wasps: some examples and observations. Antenna 12: 102–105.

Compton, S.G. & Nefdt, R.J.C. 1990. The figs and fig wasps of Ficus burtt-davyi. Mitteilungen aus dem Institut für Allgemeine Botanik Hamburg. 23a:441-450.

Compton, S.G. & Robertson, H.G. 1988. Complex interactions between mutualisms: ants tending homopterans protect fig seeds and pollinators. Ecology 69:1302–1305.

Compton, S.G. & van Noort, S. 1992. Southern African fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): resource utilization and host relationships. Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wet. Ser. C 95:423–35.

Compton, S.G., Grehan, K. & van Noort, S. 2009. A fig crop pollinated by three or more species of agaonid fig wasps. African Entomology 17: 215-222.

Compton, S. G., Craig, A. J. F. K. & Waters, I. W. R. 1996. Seed Dispersal In An African Fig Tree: Birds As High Quantity, Low Quality Dispersers? Journal Of Biogeography 23, 553-563.

Compton, S.G., Rasplus, J.Y. & Ware, A.B. 1994. African figwasp parasitoid communities. In Parasitoid Community Ecology, ed. B Hawkins, W Sheehan, pp. 343–68. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

Compton, S.G., Ross, S.J., & Thornton, I.W.B. 1994. Pollinator limitation of fig tree reproduction on the island of Anak Krakatau (Indonesia). Biotropica 26:180–186.

Compton, S.G., Ware, A.B. & van Noort, S. 1994. African figs and fig wasps: the wasp's eye view of Ficus species. In: Seyani J.H. & Chikuni A.C. (Eds). Proceedings of the XIIIth Plenary Meeting AETFAT, Zomba, pp. 451-459.

Compton, S.G., Wiebes, J.T. & Berg, C.C. 1996. The biology of fig trees and their associated animals. Journal of Biogeography 23: 405-407.

Compton, S.G., Ellwood, M.D.F., Davis, A.J. & Welch, K. 2000. The flight heights of chalcid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) in a lowland bornean rain forest: Fig wasps are the high fliers. Biotropica 32: 515-22.

Compton, Stephen G ; Alexander D Ball; Margaret E Collinson; Peta Hayes; Alexandr P Rasnitsyn; Andrew J Ross. 2010. Ancient fig wasps indicate at least 34 Myr of stasis in their mutualism with fig trees. Biol. Lett. 6, 838.

Compton, S.G., van Noort, S., Mcleish M., Deeble, M. & Stone, V. 2009. Sneaky African fig wasps that oviposit through holes drilled by other species. African Natural History 5: 9-15.

Compton, S.G., Holton, K.C., Rashbrook, V.K., van Noort, S., Vincent, L. & Ware, A.B. 1991. Studies of Ceratosolen galili, a nonpollinating Agaonid fig wasp. Biotropica 23:188–194.

Conceicao De Souza-Stevaux, M., Negrelle, R. R. B. & Citadini-Zanette, V. 1994. Seed Dipsersal By The Fish Pterodoras Granulosus In The Parama River Basin, Brazil. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 10, 621-626.

Condit IJ. 1950. An interspecific hybrid of Ficus. J. Hered. 41:165–168.

Conklin, N. L. & Wrangham, R. W. 1994. The Value Of Figs To A Hind-Gut Fermenting Frugivore: A Nutritional Analysis. Biochemical Systematics And Ecology 22, 137-151.  

Coquerel 1885. Description de parasite anormaux d'un figuier de l'ile de Bourbon. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée (2). 7:365-371, 422-427.

Cook JM, Bean D. 2006. Cryptic male dimorphism and fighting in a fig wasp. Anim. Behav. 71:1095–101

Cook, J.M & Lopez-Vaamonde, C. 2001. Figs and fig wasps: evolution in a microcosm. Biologist 48: 105-109.

Cook, J.M. & Power, S.A. 1996. Effects of within-tree flowering asynchrony on the dynamics of seed and wasp production in an Australian fig species. Journal of Biogeography. 23(4):487-493.

Cook, J.M. & Rasplus, J.-Y. 2003. Mutualists with attitude: coevolving fig wasps and figs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18: 241-248.

Cook, J. M. & Segar, S. T. 2010. Speciation in fig wasps. Ecological Entomology, 35: 54-66.

Cook, J.M., Bean, D., Power, S.A. & Dixon, D. J. 2004. Evolution of a complex coevolved trait: active pollination in a genus of fig wasps. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17: 238-246.

Cook J.M., S.G. Compton, E.A. Herre & S.A. West, 1997. Alternative mating tactics and extreme male dimorphism in fig wasps. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 264: 747-754.

Cooper, W. & Cooper, W. T. 1995. Fruit Of The Rain Forest. A Guide To The Fruit In Australian Tropical Rain Forests. Blackie, London, Uk.

Copland M.J.W.& P.E. King, 1973. The structure of the female reproductive system in the Agaonidae (Chacidoidea, Hymenoptera). Journal of Entomology (A), 48(1): 25-35.

Coquerel, C. 1855. Description de parasite anormaux d'un figuier de l'ile de Bourbon. Revue et Magasin de Zoologie Pure et Appliquée (2). 7:365-371, 422-427.

Corlett RT, Boudville V, Seet K. 1990. Seed and wasp production in five fig species (Ficus, Moraceae). Malays. Nat. J. 44:97–102.

Corlett, R. T. & Lucas, P. W. 1990. Alternative Seed-Handling Strategies In Primates - Seed-Spitting By Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca Fascicularis. Oecologia 82, 166-171.

Corlett, R. T. 1984. The Phenology Of Ficus Benjamina And Ficus Microcarpa In Singapore. Journal Of The Singapore Academy Of Science 13, 30-31.

Corlett, R. T. 1987. The Phenology Of Ficus Fistulosa In Singapore. Biotropica 19, 122-124.

Corlett, R. T. 1993. Sexual Dimorphism In The Reproductive Phenology Of Ficus Grossularioides Burm. F. In Singapore. Malayan Nature Journal 46, 149-155.

Corlett, R. T. 1996. Characteristics Of Vertebrate Dispersed Fruits In Hong Kong. Journal Of Tropical Ecology 12, 819-833.

Corlett, R. T. 1998a. Frugivory And Seed Dispersal By Birds In Hong Kong Scrubland. Forktail 13, 23-27.

Corlett, R. T. 1998b. Frugivory And Seed Dispersal By Vertebrates In The Oriental (Indomalayan) Region. Biological Reviews 73, 413-448.

Corlett, R. T. 2000. Birds Eating Figs In Brazil. Porcupine! (Newsletter Of The Department Of Ecology And Biodiversity, The University Of Hong Kong) 21, 18

Corner, E.J.H., 1965. Checklist of Ficus in Asia and Australasia with keys to identification. The Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 21: 1-186.

Corner E.J.H., 1985a. Essays on Ficus. Allertonia, 4: 125-168.

Corner E.J.H., 1985b. Ficus (Moraceae) and Hymenoptera (Chalcidoidea): figs and their pollinators. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society of London, 25: 187-195.

Corner, E. J. H. 1988. Wayside Trees Of Malaya, Volume 2. 3rd Edition. United Selangor Press, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Cornille, A., Underhill, J.G., Hossaert-McKey, M., Johnson, S. D., Tolley, K.A., Kjellberg, F., van Noort, S., Proffit, M. 2011. Floral volatiles, pollinator sharing and diversification in the fig/wasp mutualism: insights from Ficus natalensis and its two wasp pollinators. Proceeding of Royal Society B

Couturier, G. & Lachaise, D. 1983. Le peuplement d'insectes en foret de Tai (Cote d'Ivoire). 1. Modifications du peuplement dues a l'intervention humaine. 2. Les insectes associes aux figuires en foret de Tai: le emoignage d'une longue histoire commune. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France. 87(9-10):384-388.

Cowles, G. S. & Goodwin, D. 1959. Seed Digestions By The Fruit Eating Pigeon Treron. Ibis 101, 253-254.

Craig, R. J. 1996. Seasonal Population Surveys And Natural History Of A Micronesian Bird Community. Wilson Bulletin 108, 246-267.

Cranbrook, Earl Of & Edwards, D. S. 1994. A Tropical Rainforest. The Nature Of Biodiversity At Belalong, Brunei. Royal Geographic Society & Sun Tree Publishing, Uk And Singapore.  

Crawford, J.C. 1907. New North American Hymenoptera. Journal of the Entomological Society.15:177-183.

Crawford, J.C. 1910. New South American parasitic Hymenoptera. Proceedings of United States National Museum.39:235-239.

Crawford, J.C. 1910. New parasitic Hymenoptera. Proceedings of Entomological Society of Washington.11:203-207.

Crawford, J.C. 1911. Descriptions of new Hymenoptera. 1. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 39.617-623. taxonomy, Page 618.

Crawford, J.C. 1911. Descriptions of new Hymenoptera. 1. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 41:267-282.

Crawford, J.C. 1913. Descriptions of new Hymenoptera. 6. Proceedings of the United States National Museum. 45:241-260.


Crawford, J.C. 1914. Notes on the chalcidoid family Callimomidae. Proceedings of Entomological Society of Wahington.16:122-126.

Crisp MD & Cook LG. 2005. Do early branching lineages signify ancestral traits? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 122-128.

Crome, F. H. J. 1975. The Ecology Of Fruit Pigeons In Tropical North Queensland. Australian Wildlife Research 2, 155-185.

Crome, F. H. J. 1978. Foraging Ecology Of An Assemblage Of Birds In Lowland Rainforest In North Queensland. Australian Journal Of Ecology 3, 195-212.

Crosby, C.R. 1913. A revision of the North American species of Megastigmus Dalman. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 6: 155-170.

Cruaud, A., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Genson, G., Cruaud, C., Couloux, A., Kjellberg, F., Van Noort, S. & Rasplus, J.Y.  2010. Laying the foundations for a new classification of Agaonidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea), a multilocus phylogenetic approach. Cladistics 26: 359-387

Cruaud, A., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Genson, G., Couloux, A., Yan-Qiong, P., Da Rong, Y., Ubaidillah, R.,  Pereira, R.A.S., Kjellberg, F., van Noort, S., Kerdelhué, C. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2011. Out of Australia and back again: the world-wide historical biogeography of non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Sycophaginae). Journal of Biogeography 38: 209-225.

Cruaud, A., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Genson, G., Kjellberg, F., Kobmoo, N., van Noort, S., Da-Rong, Y., Yan-Qiong, P., Ubaidillah, R., Hanson, P.E., Santos-Mattos, O., Farache, F.H.A., Pereira, R.A.S., Kerdelué, C. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2011. Phylogeny and evolution of life-history strategies in Sycophaginae non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea). BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 178. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-178.

Cruaud, A., Cook, J., Da-Rong, Y., Genson, G., Jabbour-Zahab, R., Kjellberg, F. Pereira, R.A.S., Rønsted, N., Santos-Mattos, O., Savolainen, V., Ubaidillah, R., Van Noort, S., Yan-Qiong, P. & Rasplus, J.Y. 2011. Fig-fig wasp mutualism, the fall of the strict cospeciation paradigm? In: Evolution of plant-pollinator interactions. Patiny S. (ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Cruaud, Astrid; Roula Jabbour-Zahab; Gwenaëlle Genson; Stefan Ungricht; Jean-Yves Rasplus. 2012. Testing the emergence of New Caledonia: fig wasp mutualism as a case study and a review of evidence. PLoS ONE 7

Cruaud, A., N. Rønsted, B. Chantarasuwan, L.S. Chou, W. L. Clement, A. Couloux, B. Cousins, G. Genson, R. D. Harrison, P.E. Hanson, M. Hossaert-Mckey, R. Jabbour-Zahab, E. Jousselin, C. Kerdelhué, F. Kjellberg, C. Lopez-Vaamonde, J. Peebles, Y.Q. Peng, R. Augusto, S. Pereira, T. Schramm, R. Ubaidillah, S. van Noort, G. D. Weiblen, D-R. Yang, A. Yodpinyanee, R. Libeskind-Hadas, J. M. Cook, J-Y. Rasplus & V. Savolainen. 2012. An Extreme Case of Plant-Insect Co-Diversification: Figs and Fig-Pollinating Wasps. Systematic Biology 61: 1029-1047. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sysbio/sys068

Cumming, G. S. & Bernard, R. T. F. 1997. Rainfall, Food Abundance And Timing Of Parturition In African Bats. Oecologia 111, 309-317.

Cunningham D.D. 1888. On the phenomena of fertilization in Ficus roxburghii Wall. Ann. R. Bot. Gard. Calcutta 1(Append.):11–51.

Cushman, J.H., Compton, S.G., Zachariades, C., Ware, A.B., Nefdt, R.J.C. and Rashbrook, V.K. 1998. Geographic and taxonomic Distribution of a positive interaction: ant-tended homopterans indirectly benefit figs across southern Africa. Oecologia 116: 373-380.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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