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Ficus and fig wasp references


(Life; Embryophyta (plants); Angiospermae (flowering plants); Eudicotyledons; Order: Rosales; Family: Moraceae; Genus: Ficus)

This list has yet to become a comprehensive compilation. Ideally we would like to develop a resource that includes all publications dealing with any aspect of life associated with fig trees. Please send details of additional or missing publications to Simon van Noort.



























Hailey, A. 1997. Digestive Efficiency And Gut Morphology Of Omnivorous And Herbivorous African Tortoises. Canadian Journal Of Zoology 75, 787-794.

Haine ER, Martin J &Cook JM. 2006. Deep mtDNA divergences indicate cryptic species in a fig-pollinating wasp. BMC Evolutionary Biology 6:83

Hall, G. 1987. Seed Dispersal By Birds Of Prey. Zimbabwe Science News 21, 2.

Hall, K. R. L. 1965. Behaviour And Ecology Of The Wild Patas Monkey, Erythrocebus Patas, In Uganda. Journal Of Zoology 148, 15-87.

Hamann, A. & Curio, E. 1999. Interactions Among Frugivores And Fleshy Fruit Trees In A Philippine Submontane Rainforest. Conservation Biology 13, 766-773.

Hamilton, W.D. 1967. Extraordinary sex ratios. Science 156:477–488.  

Hamilton, W. D. 1979. Wingless and fighting males in fig wasps and other insects. In: Reproductive Competition, Mate Choice and Sexual Selection in Insects (Ed. by M. S. Blum & N. A. Blum), pp. 167–220. London: Academic Press.

Hamilton, W.J.I. 1986. Namib Desert Baboon (Papio Ursinus) Use Of Food And Water Resources During A Food Shortage. Madoqua 14, 397-407.

Hamilton WD. 1997. Narrow Roads of Gene Land, The Collected Papers of W.D. Hamilton. Volume I: Evolution of Social Behaviour. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press

Handley, C. O. Jr., Gardner, A. L. & Wilson, D. E. 1991. Demography And Natural History Of The Common Fruit Bat, Artibeus Jamaicensis, On Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Smithsonian Contributions To Zoology Number 511. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., Usa.

Harrison, R. D. 1996. The Ecology Of The Fig - Fig Wasp Mutualism In A Lowland Tropical Forest In Sarawak, Malaysia. M.Sc. Thesis, Center For Ecological Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.

Harrison, R.D. 2003. Fig wasp dispersal and the stability of a keystone plant resource in Borneo. Proc R Soc Lond B. 270:76-79.

Harrison RD. 2005. Figs and the diversity of tropical rainforests. BioScience 55:1053–1064

Harrison RD & Rasplus JY. 2006. Dispersal of fig pollinators in Asian tropical rain forests. J.Trop. Ecol. 22:631–639.

Harrison, R.D. & Yamamura, N. 2003. A few more hypotheses for the evolution of dioecy in figs (Ficus, Moraceae). Oikos 100: 628–635.

Harrison, R. D., N. Rønsted,Y.-Q. Peng. 2008. Fig and fig wasp biology: a perspective from the East. Symbiosis 45: 1-8.

Harrison RD, Rønsted N, Xu L, Rasplus JY, Cruaud A. 2012. Evolution of fruit traits in Ficus subgenus Sycomorus (Moraceae): to what extent do frugivores determine seed dispersal mode? PLoS One. 2012;7(6):e38432. Epub 2012 Jun 5.

Harry, M.; Rasplus, J.-Y. & Lachaise, D. 1994. La coevolution plantes-insectes: l'engrenage de deux enjeux genetiques (seconde partie). Insectes. 95(4):2-5. 

Harry M., M. Solignac & D. Lachaise, 1997. Adaptative radiation in the Afrotropical region of the Paleotropical genus Lissocephala (Drosophilidae) on the pantropical genus Ficus (Moraceae). Journal of Biogeography, 23: 543-552.

Hasselqvist, F. 1757. Iter Palaestinum eller Resa til Heliga Landet, Forråttad ifrån Ar 1749 til 1752,.  med Beskrifningar, Ron, Anmårkningar, ofver de Mårkvårdigaste naturalier, på Hennes kongl. Majlts Befallning utgifven of Carl Linnaeus 14+620pp. Stockholm

Hasselqvist, F. 1762. Reise nach Palästina.  606pp. Rostock, Honne Ed: T.H. Gadebush

Hawkins B.A.& S.G. Compton, 1992. African fig wasp communities: undersaturation and latitudinal gradients in species richness. Journal of Animal Ecology, 61: 361-372.

Healey, C. 1992. Abundance, Diet And Roosting Defecations Of The Torresian Imperial-Pigeon Ducula Spilorrhoa In Darwin. Corella 16, 107-110.

Heithaus, E. R., Fleming, T. H. & Opler, P. A. 1975. Patterns Of Foraging And Resource Utilisation In Seven Species Of Bats In A Seasonal Tropical Forest. Ecology 56, 841-854.

Helbig-Bonitz, M., Rutten, G. & Kalko, E.K.V. 2013. Fruit bats can disperse figs over different land-use types on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. African Journal of Ecology. doi: 10.1111/aje.12090

Heraty, J. M., Burks, R. A., Cruaud, A., Gibson, G. A. P., Liljeblad, J., Munro, J., Rasplus, J.-Y., Delvare, G., Janšta, P., Gumovsky, A., Huber, J., Woolley, J. B., Krogmann, L., Heydon, S., Polaszek, A., Schmidt, S., Darling, D. C., Gates, M. W., Mottern, J., Murray, E., Dal Molin, A., Triapitsyn, S., Baur, H., Pinto, J. D., van Noort, S., George, J. and Yoder, M. 2013. A phylogenetic analysis of the megadiverse Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera). Cladistics.


Herbst, L. H. 1986. The Role Of Nitrogen Fruit Pulp In The Nutrition Of The Frugivorous Bat Carollia Perspicillata. Biotropica 18, 39-44.

Herre E.A. 1985. Sex ratio adjustment in fig wasps. Science, 228: 896-898.

Herre EA. 1987. Optimality, plasticity and selective regime in fig wasp sex ratios. Nature 329: 627–629.

Herre EA. 1989. Coevolution of reproductive characteristics in 12 species of New World figs and their pollinator wasps. Experientia 45: 637–647.

Herre EA. 1993. Population structure and the evolution of virulence in nematode parasites of fig wasps. Science 259: 1442– 1445.

Herre EA. 1996. An overview of studies on a community of Panamanian figs. Journal of Biogeography 23: 593–607.

Herre EA. 1999. Laws governing species interactions? Encouragement and caution from figs and their associates. In Levels of Selection in Evolution, ed. L Keller, pp. 209–37. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.

Herre, E.A. & Grenfell, B.T. 1995. Factors affecting the evolution of virulence: nematode parasites of fig wasps as a case study. Parasitology, Cambridge. 111(supplement):S179-S191.

Herre EA, & West SA. 1997. Conflict of interest in a mutualism: documenting the elusive fig-wasp-seed tradeoff. Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. B 264:1501–1507.  

Herre E.A., Jander C., Machado C.A. 2008. Evolutionary ecology of figs and their associates: ongoing progress and outstanding puzzles. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 39: 439-458

Herre, E.A., Machado, C.A. & West, S.A. 2001. Selective regime and fig wasp sex ratios: towards sorting rigor from pseudo-rigor in tests of adaptation. In: Adaptation and Optimality (eds Orzack, S.H. & Sober, E.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 191-218.

Herre, E.A., Knowlton, N., Mueller. U.G., & Rehner, S.A. 1999. The evolution of mutualisms: exploring the paths between conflict and cooperation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14:49–53.

Herre E.A., C.A. Machado, E. Bermingham, J.D. Nason, D.M. Windsor, S. McCafferty, W. van Houten & K. Bachmann, 1996. Molecular phylogenies of figs and their pollinator wasps. Journal of Biogeography, 23: 521-530.

Herre EA, West SA, Cook JM, Compton SG, & Kjellberg F. 1997. Fig-associated wasps: pollinators and parasites, sex-ratio adjustment and male polymorphism, population structure and its consequences. In The Evolution of Mating Systems in Insects and Arthropods, ed. JC Choe, BJ Crespi, pp. 226–39. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Herting, B. 1977. Hymenoptera. A catalogue of parasites and predators of terrestrial arthropods. Section A. Host or Prey/Enemy. 4:iii+206pp. Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, Institute of Biological Control

Heydon, M. J. & Bulloh, P. 1997. Mousedeer Densities In A Tropical Rainforest: The Impact Of Selective Logging. Journal Of Applied Ecology 34, 484-496.

Heydon, S.L. & Bouček, Z. 1992. Taxonomic changes in Nearctic Pteromalidae, with the description of some new taxa (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 94: 471-489.

Hide, R. L., Pernetta, J. C. & Senabe, T. 1984. Exploitation Of Wild Animals. The Research Report Of The Simbu Land Use Project, Vol. 4. South Simbu: Studies In Demography, Nutrition, And Subsistence. I. A. S. E. R., Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

Hill D., 1967. Figs (Ficus spp.) and fig wasps (Chalcidoidea). Journal of Natural History, 1: 413-434.

Hill DS. 1967. Fig-wasps (Chalcidoidea) of Hong Kong I. Agaonidae. Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) 89:3–55.

Hill, D.S. 1967. Figs (Ficus spp.) of Hong Kong.  viii+128pp. Hong Kong University Press, Hong Kong

Hill DS. 1969. Revision of the genus Liporrhopalum Waterston, 1920 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae). Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden) 100:3–36.

Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M. 1990. Role Of Food Sharing Between Mother And Infant In The Ontogeny Of Feeding Behaviour. In The Chimpanzees Of The Mahale Mountains: Sexual And Life-History Strategies (Ed. T. Nishada), Pp. 267-275. University Of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, Japan.

Hladik, C-M. 1977. A Comparative Study Of The Feeding Strategies Of Two Sympatric Species Of Leaf Monkeys: Presbytis Senex And Presbytis Entellus. In Primate Ecology: Studies Of Feeding And Ranging Behaviour In Lemurs, Monkeys And Apes (Ed. T. H. Clutton-Brock), Pp. 324-353. Academic Press, London, Uk.

Hladik, C-M. 1981. Diet And The Evolution Of Feeding Strategies Among Forest Primates. In Omnivorous Primates (Ed. R. S. O Harding And G. Telai), Pp. 215-254. Columbia University Press, New York, Usa.

Hnatiuk, S. H. 1978. Plant Dispersal By The Aldabran Giant Tortoise Geochelone Gigantea (Schweigger). Oecologia 36, 345-350.

Ho, K.Y. 1987. Ecology of the pollinator, jelly fig wasp, Blastophaga pumilae Hill, with emphasis on the possibility of population establishment at low elevation. Chinese Journal of Entomology. 7(1):37-44.

Hoberg EP & Brooks DR. 2008. A macroevolutionary mosaic: episodic host-switching, geographical colonization and diversification in complex host-parasite systems. Journal of Biogeography 35: 1533-1550.

Hoffmeyer, E.B. 1929. Aus Samen gezüchtete Callimomiden. Entomologiske Meddelelser. 16:322-334. 

Hoffmeyer, E.B. 1930. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der dänischen Callimomiden, mit Bestimmungsrabellen der europäischen Arten. (Hym. Chalc.) (Slutning) Entomologiske Meddelelser. 17:232-260.  

Hoffmeyer, E.B. 1932. Neue Agaontiden I. (Hym. Chalc.). Entomologiske Meddelelser. 18:186-199.

Holmes, G. 1990. The Biology And Ecology Of Coxen's Fig Parrot. Royal Australian Ornithological Union Report 65, 1-34.

Horn, M. H. 1997. Evidence For Dispersal Of Fig Seeds By The Fruit-Eating Characid Fish Brycon Guatemalensis Regan In A Cost Rican Tropical Rain Forest. Oecologia 109, 259-264.

Hossaert-McKey M & Bronstein JL. 2001. Self-pollination and its costs in a monoecious fig (Ficus aurea, Moraceae) in a highly seasonal subtropical environment. Am. J. Bot. 88:685–692.

Hossaert-McKey M, Gibernau M, Frey JE. 1994. Chemosensory attraction of fig wasps to substances produced by receptive figs. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 70:185– 191.

Howard, L.O. 1897. On the Chalcididae of the Island of Grenada. Journal of the Linnean Society (Zoology). 26:129-178.

Howard, L.O. 1901. Smyrna fig culture in the United States. Yearbook of the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C. 1900:79-106. 

Howe, H. F. 1983. Rhamphastos Swainsonii (Dios Tede, Toucan De Swainson, Chestnut-Mandibled Toucan. In Costa Rican Natural History (Ed. D. H. Janzen), Pp. 603-604. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago, Usa.

Howe, H. F. 1990. Seed Dispersal By Birds And Mammals: Implications For Seedling Demography. In Reproductive Ecology Of Tropical Forest Plants (Ed. K. S. Bawa And M. Hadley), Pp. 191-218. Unesco & Parthenon Publishing Group, Paris, France.

Howe, H. F. 1993. Specialised And Generalised Dispersal Systems: Where Does 'The Paradigm' Stand? Vegetatio 107/108, 3-13.

Howe, H. F., & Vande Kerckhove, G. A. 1979. Fecundity And Seed-Dispersal Of A Tropical Tree. Ecology 60, 180-189.  

Hu, H.-Y., Chen, Z.-Z., Jiang, Z.-F., Huang, D.-W., Niu, L.-M. and Fu, Y.-G. 2013. Pollinating fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi adjusts the offspring sex ratio to other foundresses. Insect Science 20: 228–234. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-7917.2011.01495.x


Huber, L.L. 1927. A taxonomic and ecological review of the north American chalci-flies of the genus Callimone. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 70(14): 1-114.

Hume, I. D. 1998. Marsupial Nutrition. Cambridge University Press, New York, Usa.

Hume, I. D., Jazwinski, E. & Flannery, T. F. 1993. Morphology And Function Of The Digestive Tract In New Guinea Possums. Australian Journal Of Zoology 41, 85-100.  

Husain, T. & Kudeshia, P.P. 1987. Ophiopinotus pinotus new genus, new species (Hymenoptera, Torymidae). Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society.84(1):175-177.

Web authors Simon van Noort (Iziko South African Museum)

and Jean-Yves Rasplus (INRA, France)


Citation: van Noort, S. & Rasplus, JY. 2024. Figweb: figs and fig wasps of the world. URL: www.figweb.org(Accessed on <day-month-year>).

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